Hudaibiyah Treaty: A watershed moment in the Islamic history
The Hudaibiyah episode / Hudaibiyah Treaty marks a crucial period in Islamic history in which Muslims were able to gain unexpectedly from the midst of apparent loss.
It had been six years since the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his followers had left Makkah, their beloved city. They were anxious to pay tawaf at the sacred Kaaba (circumambulation).
In the meantime, the pagans of Makkah had fought Muslims three times:
- in the Battle of Badr,
- Battle of Uhud, and
- Battle of Trench
Despite winning at least two of the battles (they had to retreat at Uhud), Muslims were still too weak to mount a counter-offensive against the Makkan pagans’ huge force. Meanwhile, the Hudaibiyah incident happened, which not only inspired Muslims to continue their goal but also put their courage and faith in Islam to the test.
The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) dreamed that he and his companions were entering Makkah and completing tawaf six years after Hijrah, in 628 CE. It was a positive indication, therefore he announced his intention to undertake Umrah in Makkah.
From Madinah, almost 1,400 Muslims wore ihram with him. They brought with them 70 camels to be sacrificed. According to custom, the Makkans were obligated to allow pilgrims who came without arms to perform Umrah. The Quraish commanders, however, were frightened by the large Muslim presence and dispatched Khaled Bin Walid with 200 fighters to prevent them from entering the city, violating centuries of Arab custom.
To avoid conflict, the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) diverted Taneem’s course and arrived in Hudaibiyah, a lesser-known location on the city’s western outskirts. Makkans dispatched Urwah bin Masud to speak with the Prophet to prevent Muslims from entering the city. “I have visited the royal courts of the Persians, Romans, and Ethiopian kingdoms, but I have never seen the kind of respect and high esteem as the followers of Mohammad have for him,” Urwah said, highly impressed by the scenes of Prophet’s love among his followers.
Later, the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) dispatched Uthman bin Affan, who had strong relations in Makkah, but he was held and a story arose that Uthman had been murdered in order to disturb the Muslims. This was a fantastically difficult task. Despite being 400 kilometers from his city and lacking the necessary weapons to battle, he prepared for a warlike situation and summoned his supporters to fight to the death.
Treaty of Hdaibiyah Terms and Conditions
In the name of Almighty Allah.
These are the prerequisites of peace between Muhammad, son of Abdullah, and Suhayl Ibn Amr the ambassador of Makkah:
- For the next ten years, the two parties will sign an armistice and there will be no fighting.
- Anyone or any tribe may join Muhammad and enter into any arrangement with him. Similarly, any individual or tribe that chooses to join the Quraish and enter into an alliance with them is free to do so.
- Muslims would return any Makkan to Makkah if he traveled to Madinah, but if a Muslim from Madinah traveled to Makkah, he would not be returned.
- Any young guy or one whose father is still living who visits Muhammad without his father’s or guardian’s consent shall be returned to his father or guardian. Anyone who travels to the Quraish of Makkah, on the other hand, will not be returned.
- This year, Muslims will return to Makkah without entering the city. However, Muhammad and his companions will be able to enter Makkah next year, stay three days, and do the Umrah.
Benefits of Treaty of Hudaibiyah
It appeared to be an agreement that went against Muslim aspirations, yet it eventually turned out to be a major triumph for Muslims.
By accepting all of these requirements as prescribed, the Prophet (peace be upon him) shown great patience. “The Treaty of Hudaibiyah” is the name given to this agreement. It was one of the most notable occurrences in Islamic history and proved to be a watershed moment.
Few of those there could see the treaty’s triumph as a result of the Prophet’s foresight. The Hudaibiyah Treaty’s first benefit was that the hostile Makkan authority acknowledged Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) as the Madinah state’s leader. Second, the Treaty of Hudaibiyah put an end to the Quraish’s antagonistic actions against Muslims. They were now free to travel about and openly discuss Islam. They were now free to travel about and openly discuss Islam. Third, Muslims were permitted to form partnerships with other tribes on an equal footing. Fourth, the ten-year ceasefire with the Quraish offered a once-in-a-lifetime chance to propagate Islam and deal with competitors in other areas of the peninsula. They quickly captured Khyber, a Jewish stronghold.
The Hudaibiyah treaty’s clauses 3 and 5 were the most vexing, but the Prophet (peace be upon him) simplified them by stating that if a Muslim escapes to Makkah, we won’t need him, and if a Makkan Muslim comes to us in Madinah, we’ll return him and he’ll preach Islam there. Muslims were given a written guarantee that they would be able to perform Umrah peacefully next year if they did not do it this year. The holy Prophet (peace be upon him) was adamant about establishing the holy city without bloodshed, and he was completely successful. The treaty has been hailed as a masterpiece of his foresight and wisdom by commentators.
Importance of Hudaibiyah Treaty
It was indeed Prophet Mohammad’s tremendous victory (peace be upon him). Islam grew by leaps and bounds after the peaceful ceasefire at Hudaibiyah. Muslims were free to propagate Islam as they pleased. Three Quraish wars against Muslims were lost.
The people realized that Islam would eventually triumph. Hundreds of thousands of them converted to Islam. When the Holy Prophet came the next year to conduct Umrah, he was accompanied by 2,000 pilgrims instead of the previous year’s 1400.
When the Prophet came from Hudaibiya, he got a Divine vision that Almighty Allah had placed a seal of honor on this pact and referred to it in the Qur’an as “Fatah Al-Mubeen” (Manifest Victory). (48:01) He also rewarded individuals who swore an oath of loyalty under a tree known as Bait Ridwan, claiming that Allah’s protection was upon the Prophet’s (PBUH) hand.
Following the conclusion of the pact, the holy Prophet instructed his followers to slay sacrificial animals in the same location and shave their heads to remove ihram. However, the people were so depressed that they put off complying. The Prophet (peace be upon him) sensed it and entered the tent, where he informed his accompanying wife, Umm Salma, of the people’s apprehension.
“The people are shocked to lose their Umrah and access to the holy city,” she kindly suggested. You carry out your strategy. They’ll stick with you.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) emerged from his cave, sacrificed his camels, and shaved his head. Following that, the people followed him and all headed out towards Madinah. Ummul Momenin, Umm Salma, addressed a vexing situation with her knowledge.
A young Muslim in shackles came into the Muslim camp while Sohail was signing the pact, pleading for aid and release. He was identified by Sohail. Abu Jandal, his own son, was the perpetrator. “Here is the test of this treaty, you cannot take this man as per clause no. 4,” Sohail said. You must give it back to me.” “We have just signed a covenant with Quraish in the name of Allah, and we honor it,” the holy Prophet agreed and consoled Abu Jandal. Be patient and submit yourself to Allah’s will. He’ll make things better for you.” Abu Jandal was given up to his father, but he managed to flee Makkah and eventually settled in the desert.
Utba, also known as Abul Baseer, a Muslim, left Makkah and took refuge on the Red Sea shore. Abu Jandal and a slew of other fugitives joined him, posing a threat to the Quraish’s passing commerce caravans. The Quraish eventually asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) to remove this provision and summon these courageous Muslims back to Madinah. The Prophet wrote Abul Baseer a letter, which he was overjoyed to receive, but he was dying and died there. Abu Jandal and the other 70 mujahedeen, on the other hand, returned to Madinah, praying for Abul Baseer, who had supplied them with refuge.
The Hudaibiyah Treaty served as a precursor to Makkah’s conquest.
The Banu Bakr tribe joined Al-Quraish, and the Banu Khaza’a tribe formed an alliance with the Prophet, according to the agreement. However, they had a lengthy history of animosity between them. Banu Bakr invaded Banu Khaza’a in Sha’ban, 8AH, about 20 months later. They murdered a large number of people, and their leader, Nofel, did not spare any of them, even when they were within the sacred city. They were also backed up by the Quraish, who sent troops and weapons. Amr bin Salem of Banu Khaza’a hurried to Madinah with a group of 20 men to inform the Holy Prophet about the situation. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) rose to the occasion once more.
He dispatched a message to Quraish, telling them to pay a ransom for the people who had been slain, or end their affiliation with Banu Bakr, or treat the Hudaibiyah Treaty as void. The Quraish answered arrogantly that they would neither pay a ransom nor end their alliance with the Banu Bakr, but that they would be willing to break the contract with you. The Holy Prophet was up to the task. He, on the other hand, was determined to avoid bloodshed in Harem territory at all costs. He devised a covert plot to surprise Makkah with a strong army, allowing the Makkans to submit without a struggle. It was a brilliant plan. He announced war preparations without specifying the location. During Ramadhan, Muslim tribes flocked to Madinah (8AH). During the 20 months following the conquest of Khyber and Taima, several northern tribes converted to Islam. Thousands of Muslim volunteers showed up. Aslam, Sulaim, Ghifar, Muzaina, Ashjaa, and Juhaina were among the notable tribes who joined the Islamic army. Muslim soldiers marched to Marr Zahran, where they camped. On the 7th of Ramadhan, they encircled the holy city. This unexpected onslaught perplexed the Quraish. All escape routes were likewise shut by Muslims. On the 10th of Ramadhan (6AH), the Holy Prophet announced a general amnesty, and the whole city submitted to him without violence (except a few by Khalid bin Waleed) This was a wonderful Hudaibiyah Treaty present.
It was also significant that after the Hudaibiyah Treaty and before the conquest of Makkah, great warriors and arch enemies of Islam realized the situation and converted to Islam.
Among them were
- Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, the Prophet’s uncle;
- Abu Sufyan, the Quraish’s CNC;
- Khalid bin Waleed, the great conqueror; and
- Amr ibn al Aas, Egypt’s subsequent conqueror
Ikrema bin Abu Jehal, Uteba bin Abi Lahab, Safwan bin Umayyah, Kaab bin Zuhair, Sohail bin Amr, Hakim bin Hizam, Wahshi the Hamza killer, and Hindah bint Rabia, the harsh lady later converted to Islam. In Makkah, there was virtually no anti-Islamic opposition. After banning his entry into the city in 6 AH, the Makkan leadership welcomed him as their leader 22 months later. Treaty of Hudaibiyah had made a remarkable achievement.
Thus were the significant events associated with an unknown location near Makkah Al-Mukarramah known as Hudaibiyah. People later came to see this historical spot, and a mosque was built where the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) prayed during his stay. On the old route going to Jeddah, this mosque near Shumaisi is roughly 20 kilometers from Makkah. Consider and pray for those who made an oath under an acacia tree to sacrifice their lives for the sake of Islam when you visit this site.